America’s trucking industry is a central and critical link in the supply chain. With more than 7.6 million employees nationwide – including 3.3 million professional truck drivers – the industry moves 10.23 billion tons of freight annually, or 72.5% of total domestic tonnage shipped in the United States.
As an essential link, truckers feel pressure any time the supply chain gets squeezed. Today, 这些压力在上游和下游都能感受到，因为珠三角生产模式导致亚洲工厂产量下降, 在华盛顿几十年的撤资之后，美国bwin足球已经摇摇欲坠.
Trucking is not the source of these current woes, 但bwin足球将是解决方案的关键部分——就像bwin足球经历了大流行最黑暗的日子一样. Truckers have been on the frontlines since Day One, delivering 个人防护用品, medical supplies, life-saving vaccines, and life’s daily essentials. We persevered through unimaginable hardships to ensure the economy’s wheels kept turning.
现在, as the global supply chain struggles to untangle itself out of the COVID recession, rest assured truckers will continue to have America’s back.
Big Picture: The Global Supply Chain
Understanding the current crisis requires a long lens.
The flow of global commerce depends on a complex and delicate international supply chain. bwin足球需要从整体的角度来看待各种因素的汇合是如何导致这一链条断裂的.
Decades ago, large elements of the U.S. manufacturing base began migrating overseas as companies looked to reduce labor costs. It’s from Asia where many of today's pressures are emanating.
As the Delta variant continues its deadly surge, factory output there remains crippled – at about 50% of pre-pandemic levels. High-volume container ports in China, Vietnam, and Malaysia are operating at reduced capacity, with severe downstream effects for American consumers.
China is the largest foreign supplier of goods into the U.S.; we depend on the Chinese for machinery, furniture and bedding, toys and sports equipment, and agricultural products like processed fruits and vegetables. Vietnam and Malaysia provide the U.S. with medical instruments, microchips (a key component in new devices and automobiles), apparel and footwear, and grocery items like pastas, cereals, baked goods, and vegetable oils.
大型钢铁集装箱的出现大大降低了在海洋上运输大量货物的成本，从而使全球化成为可能. 一些 90% of globally traded goods move by sea, 60% of which are packed into those crates. That includes virtually all of the imported fruits, smartphones, 电视, kitchen appliances, and other modern marvels that consumers take for granted.
The problem? A global shortage of containers, 由于需求激增和劳动力短缺，货箱在世界各地的沿海和内陆港口堆积如山. This has driven up the cost of shipping six-fold, contributing to the rising prices consumers see in-store and online.
The ocean shipping industry, comprised almost entirely of foreign owned-companies, has consolidated in recent years into three large alliances. As White House executive order on competitiveness recently noted, this foreign shipping oligopoly poses problems for the American consumer.
In order for efficient drayage, truckers need access to three things: information, equipment, and space. Currently, there is a lack of all three. Information sharing is extremely disjointed; chassis are unavailable; and there’s no physical space—both in nearby warehouses and portside—for truckers to deliver loads and return empty containers and chassis.
更多的卡车和更长的工作时间只有在卡车司机能够获得实时信息来进行收货和返程时才会有所帮助, have chassis to move containers, and have somewhere to drop freight and return equipment.
🛑 Information Sharing
Information sharing inside major ports is extremely disjointed. Each terminal within a port system have separate information portals. 由于没有全球化的运营视角，卡车司机很难在整个港口系统中为多个码头提供服务. Within a terminal, 卡车司机在开关门的时候很少或根本没有得到通知.
Intermodal chassis might be a term unfamiliar to many consumers, but this rudimentary piece of equipment is a critical linchpin of international trade. 底盘是运输集装箱的滚动框架，卡车司机可以在其上运进运出港口. Before a truck can pick up a container, they must first pick up a chassis from a provider inside or near the port.
Recent tariffs imposed on Chinese-made chassis have made them prohibitively expensive, and American chassis manufacturers are unable to keep up with demand. Moreover, deeper, 底盘市场的系统性问题多年来一直阻碍着货运的有效运行.
Often times, 外国海运公司要求卡车司机从与该轮船公司有合作关系的特定供应商那里租用底盘. For example, if Trucker John wants to pick up a container from a Red Ocean ship, he must lease a red-colored chassis from Red Chassis Co. – even if no red chassis are readily available, and despite the fact blue chassis are abundantly available. As a result, the container can't move, and the backlogs worsen.
Moreover, after dropping a load at a warehouse or distribution center, Trucker John then has to return that red chassis to its pool, 即使它位于A航站楼，而他的下一站是在港口的另一边的E航站楼. John might wait 40 minutes to get through Terminal A’s gate, only to find that return location is now full, leaving him with an empty chassis that he can’t use to pick-up his next container.
🛑 Detention and Demurrage
供应链中的所有各方都应该集中在安全运输货物的共同目标上, efficiently, and cheaply possible for the American consumer. However, this incentive structure is often misaligned, with one example being the practice of detention and demurrage fees.
这些费用是由海运公司向汽船公司收取的，当集装箱未被“准时”取走或退回时.“问题是，延误往往是由卡车司机完全无法控制的因素造成的. Charges can be levied even though return locations may be unavailable, containers are not yet shown as available for pick up at a terminal, or for days when ports are closed. Imagine trying to return your book to the public library, only to be told “sorry, we have no room for it right now, so you’ll have to continue paying your late fee until we find space.”
尽管联邦海事委员会试图通过一项解释性的规定来解决这种荒唐的做法, it thus far has had little impact. 这个系统以牺牲辛勤工作的美国卡车司机为代价，填补了外国海运公司的利润.
The Trucking Link
When trucking stops, America stops.
Truckers aren’t just the backbone of the economy – they are the heartbeat of our nation.
As a central link in the supply chain, 美国的bwin足球业发现自己陷入了这些接踵而至的压力之中——这些压力来自于关闭的亚洲工厂, to the backlogged ports, overflowing warehouses, and pothole-lined highways across the U.S. bwin足球推动经济发展、将商品上架并送到消费者手中的能力，受到了一连串障碍的阻碍.
Like other freight industries, we face our own capacity challenges. 早在COVID-19之前，卡车司机就出现了长期短缺，但大流行加剧了这种短缺, as state DMVs and driver training schools closed, cutting off the pipeline of new drivers entering the industry. In 2021, we estimate the industry is roughly 80,000 drivers short of what it needs optimally meet current freight demand.
There is no single cause for the truck driver shortage. Contributing factors include a high average age of current drivers, which leads to a high number of retirements; the fact that females comprise only 7% of all drivers; and the inability of some would-be and current drivers to pass a drug test.
While there is no single cause to the driver shortage, the trucking industry is pursuing a range of solutions to help address the issue. bwin足球正处于全面招聘模式:卡车司机的收入目前正以5倍于历史平均水平的速度增长, and the average weekly earnings for long-haul, truckload drivers are up more than 25% since the beginning of 2019.
The fact is truck driving is among the three most common ——也是最后一个不需要学士学位就能过上中等收入生活的途径. The industry has ramped up recruiting in underrepresented communities, including women, urban and minority hiring. bwin足球正在为退役军人建立过渡到卡车行业的管道. bwin足球正在倡导新的学徒计划，帮助高中毕业生为卡车行业的长期职业生涯做好准备和培训.
Today, the average age of a new truck driver entering the industry is 35 years old, and the average age of all drivers is 47. As the current workforce ages out and retirements grow in number, 该行业拥有招募下一代卡车驾驶专业人员所需的许可，这一点至关重要.
Dos and Don'ts for Policymakers
- DO pass the bipartisan infrastructure bill. 《bwin足球投资和就业法案》(Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act)将对贸易bwin足球进行早该进行的投资. 它包含了一些重要的项目，帮助加强bwin足球工人队伍，增加bwin足球经济中卡车司机的数量. There can be no immediate nor lasting solution without passage of IIJA.
- DO promote open, fair and competitive practices in our nation’s ports, including chassis choice and interoperable chassis pools. The chassis market is broken and one of the most significant, 忽略了阻碍货物通过沿海和内陆港口的瓶颈. The current system is designed for inefficiency, profiting foreign-owned ocean carriers at the expense of American truckers and consumers.
- DO pass the Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 2021. The current law has not been updated in two decades, during which dramatic changes have occurred in the maritime shipping marketplace. 这项立法将加强对不公平贸易行为的惩罚，并通过确保美国卡车司机的安全，帮助缓解瓶颈, shippers and exporters are no longer at the mercy of foreign-owned ocean carriers.
- DO NOT further disrupt the supply chain with one-size-fits-all vaccine mandates. 即将出台的OSHA规定威胁到燃料卡车司机的更替和退休，并可能切断本已面临断裂危险的供应链. 卡车司机在减轻病毒传播最安全的环境之一——单独工作和在卡车驾驶室内工作——在整个大流行期间，该行业已经证明，在运送疫苗时可以安全操作, 个人防护用品, and critical medical supplies to the frontlines.
- DO NOT enact AB5 or the PRO Act. These state and federal proposals would essentially outlaw independent contracting, decimating truck capacity overnight. Independent contractors are an essential pillar for a viable trucking industry. This is especially true today, 随着假日季的临近，不断飙升的货运需求将供应链推到了崩溃的边缘. If not for the AB5 injunction now in place, the crisis playing out in the Ports of LA and Long Beach would be exponentially worse.
Dos and Don'ts for Consumers
DO be patient and plan ahead. Untangling global supply lines won't happen overnight, and we anticipate these challenges will persist into 2022. With the holiday season upon is, 对于消费者来说，谨慎的做法是提前预料到购物的延迟，并提前完成购物.
DO NOT horde. 恐慌性购买解决不了任何问题，反而是火上浇油，因为它传播了一种集体歇斯底里的感觉.